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Biology, Learning and development, Nature, Psychology

Sapiens 2

Homo Sapiens is primarily a social animal. Social coorperation is our key for survival and reproduction. It is not enough for individual men and women to know the whereabouts of lions and bisons. It is much more important for them to know who in their band hates whom, who is sleeping with whom, who is honest and who is a cheat.

Over the years, people have woven an incredibly complex network of stories. This accumulates immense social power for humans. The kinds of things that people create through this network of stories are known in academic circles as fictions, social constructs or imagined realities.

An imagined reality is something we all have and that everyone believes in, and as long as this communal beliefs persists, the imagined reality exerts force in the world.

Ever since the cognitive revolution, Sapiens have thus been living in a dual reality. On the one hand, the objective reality of rivers, trees and lions; and on the other hand, the imagined reality of gods, nations and corporations.

Love, Health And Wisdom

Brian

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Learning and development, Mindset, Psychology

Dit Mindset er 80%

“Mindset” er et meget anvendt ord i sportens verden, men hvordan kan du bruge begrebet, så du bliver en bedre sportsudøver hver dag?

Læringsforskeren Carol Dweck har en vigtig pointe omkring læring er, at det ikke handler om, hvilket niveau vi præsterer på, men om vi præsterer på højere eller lavere niveau end vi plejer – og endnu vigtigere: Hvad der skal til for at rykke et niveau højere op.

Jeg har i min tid med sport oplevet rigtig mange atleter, der på et tidspunkt i deres karriere bliver fanget i et mentalt vakuum, hvor de prøver at fastholde de resultater de har lavet fremfor at forsøge at blive bedre.

Eksempelvis oplever jeg tit unge atleter, der kommer i kontakt med et landshold og fra denne dag handler det ikke længere om hvor gode de kan blive, men om “ikke at miste” pladsen på landsholdet. Man kan vel sige, at de bliver låst i deres tilgang og fokuserer på hvordan de kan positionere sig og finde en vej til at fastholde deres plads i en reaktiv tilgang. Modsætningen er at antage, at grunden til de er på landsholdet er fordi de forsøger at udvikle sig og derfor blive ved med at lære og søge efter bedre resultater.

Frygten for at fejle, frygten for ikke at lykkes, frygten for at miste det man allerede har opnået og måske undskyldninger for at slippe uden om udfordringer, forhindringer, kritik, feedback og hårdt arbejde.
Her er 5 handlinger til udvikling og langsigtet succes.

1/ Lær at sige “endnu”
Der er stor forskel på at sige ”jeg kan ikke” og ”jeg kan ikke endnu” fordi ordet endnu lægger op til punkt to.

2/ Find ud af hvad dit næste skridt er
Når du har sagt “endnu” skal du derefter sige: “Men det næste jeg vil gøre for at lykkes er….”

3/ Du lærer – både når du lykkes og når du fejler
Det er ikke så vigtigt om du lykkes. Det er din reaktion på enten succes eller fiasko, der er vigtig. Hvis du ikke lykkes skal du finde ud af hvad dit næste skridt er – og hvis du lykkes skal du også finde ud af hvad dit næste skridt er.

4/ Fokusér på at få “flere rigtige”
Det handler ikke om hvor god du er. Det handler om hvad du har lært og kan som du ikke plejer at kunne. Derfor skal du fokusere på de ting, der er lykkedes siden sidst (dvs. flere rigtige) i stedet for altid at dele tingene op i “jeg var go” eller “jeg var dårlig”.

5/ Lad andre inspirere dig
Når andre lykkes er det vigtigt at blive inspireret af dem, hvad kan du lære, hvad er næste skridt for dig? Men lad være med at kopiere ting uden at kende tankerne bag, du kan lige så godt ende med at stjæle deres fejl som deres styrker. Så hav et filter på når du bliver inspireret.

Opsamling
Tankerne i et udviklings-mindset er selvfølgelig mere end 5 punkter, men jeg håber, at jeg har kunnet inspirere dig til et mindset, hvor du får lyst til at blive bedre.

Jeg tænker, at udviklings-mindsettet kan inspirere mange felter

  • Den enkelte atlet, der vil være bedre
  • Træneren, der vil skabe udvikling
  • Klubben eller holdet, der vil være bevidst om deres mindset
  • Lederen, der vil inspirere et udviklings miljø
  • Men vigtigst af alt: Enhver underviser, der vil stimulere læring i stedet for resultater.

Inspireret af

Sportspsykologisk konsulent og mentaltræner Kim Dietrichsen

Love, Health And Wisdom

Brian

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Learning and development, Mindset, Psychology

Fixed mindset and the Growth mindset

Why is it that some player’s who are labeled as being “less talented” become more successful than their “more talented” peers? This question has frustrated many coaches over the years, and Carol Dweck a professor from Stanford University, believes the answer is down to mindset. Dweck has extensively examined mindset, and argues that there are two fundamental mindsets that people use: the fixed mindset and the growth mindset.

Those with a fixed mindset believe they are born with a certain amount of intelligence or talent, and these abilities cannot be improved. This creates a constant urge to try and look better than other people. Within this mindset you are not interested in learning or bettering yourself, the only thing that matters is looking better than others because; “If you are only born with a certain amount of talent, you have to try create the illusion that you were born with a lot.”

People that possess a growth mindset believe abilities such as athleticism and intelligence etc. can be improved through hard work and persistence. People with a growth mindset generate a capacity for life long learning and constantly strive to improve. When presented with an obstacle, those possessing a growth mindset tend to rise to the challenge. Often, people of the growth mindset do not fear failure; instead, they view it as a chance to improve themselves. They adopt the view that “it’s not always the people born smartest that end up the smartest”.

As part Dweck’s extensive research she carried out two simple experiments on the topic of mindset, both of the studies have great relevance to coaching and the way coaches interact with athletes. In the first experiment Dweck took over three hundred students of similar age and range of ability, and gave them a questionnaire which tested their mindset. The group was split into two; those with a growth mindset, and those possessing a fixed mindset. Each group was then given the same task, a series of increasingly difficult problems. What happened next was extremely interesting.

The fixed mindset group became disheartened extremely quickly when the problems they were given got harder. They started to blame their lack of intelligence for their failure stating, “I guess I’m not good at this type of thing” or “I never had a good memory”. As a result, the majority of the fixed mindset group abandoned the task and failed to solve the set problems.

The findings from the growth mindset group could not have been more different. Despite also struggling with the more difficult problems, they did not appear to blame themselves for their lack of success in failing to solve the more difficult problems. Indeed most did not seem to consider themselves to be failing instead considered themselves as  “not yet successful”. In contrast to the other group, more than eighty percent of the growth mindset group maintained or improved their performance and applied strategies that helped them solve the more complex problems.

The results from this experiments shows that the difference in success was solely down to the students’ mindset. Those who possessed a growth mindset, and believed their performance could be improved simply through effort significantly outperformed those who believed that their talent was fixed. Therefore if coaches want to help their players improve, then a good starting point might be to help them generate a growth mindset.

So how do you help foster a growth mindset? This is obviously a vital question. The findings from the second experiment carried out by Dweck may shed some light on this. Four hundred students were given a series of simple puzzles. When finished each student was given his or her score, alongside some praise. Half the students were praised for their intelligence, i.e. “you must be good at this” while the other half were praised on their effort i.e. “you must have worked hard at this”. Dweck was testing whether the subtle difference in the language used could make a difference to the mindsets of the students. Following this the students were given the choice to take either a difficult or an easy test. Two thirds of the group that were praised for “being good” at the previous task opted for the easy test, to protect their “good” status. In contrast, 90% of the group praised for effort choose the harder test.

The second experiment shows how a simply changing our language can influence the mindset of the recipient. There was a clear propensity for the participants to develop a fixed mindset if praised for being “good” or “talented” at something, while participants displayed a growth mindset when being praised for effort.

This clearly shows the power of the words coaches can use to influence the players they work with. Dweck’s research clearly suggests that developing a growth mindset could be crucial for success in any walk of life. It appears to create a desire to constantly put in effort and improve, as well as helping people become more resilient when faced with failures. It is also clear that a fixed mindset can lead players to avoid challenges and be more likely to give up easily, which in the world of sport is the difference between success and failure.

Dweck’s research provides some clear lessons for sports coaches –

  1. Mindset can have a huge impact on the performance level of an athlete. Developing a growth mindset can lead to resilient athletes who constantly strive to improve.
  2. Mindset can be learnt, improved and developed.
  3. Educating players on the two different type of mindset is the first step to help a player develop a growth mindset.
  4. The environment created, and the language coaches’ use is fundamental to developing a growth mindset in players.
  5. The praise coaches give their players is crucial. Praise for effort not ability.

I hope that both players and coaches enjoyed this article, and it challenged you to think about which mindset you currently possess. For more information please see Carol Dewck’s book:Mindset: the new psychology of success.

https://believeperform.com/performance/mindset-the-fundamental-ingredient-to-success/

 

Love, Health And Wisdom

Brian

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Learning and development, Psychology

Universelle Personlighedstræk

Forskelle i menneskelig adfærd er ikke bare at finde over tid eller mellem kulturer, men også inden for de enkelte landes grænser eller regioner, afhængigt af under hvilke forhold borgerne lever; for eksempel by eller land, fattig eller rig, farligt eller trygt nærmiljø.

Desuden kan det enkelte menneskes personlighed forandre sig livet igennem.

Det er måske indlysende, at vores miljø påvirker os. Men selv noget, som, vi let kan forestille os, er almindeligt gældende for alle mennesker til alle tider, kan variere – for eksempel personlighedstræk.

Psykologerne taler om ‘The Big Five’ (‘femfaktormodellen’), som angiveligt beskriver os alle.

Vores personlighed er i forskellig grad sammensat af:

  • Ekstraversion (indadvendt – udadvendt)
  • Neuroticisme (bekymret – rolig)
  • Åbenhed (konventionel – original)
  • Samvittighedsfuldhed (upålidelig – trofast)
  • Venlighed (irritabel – godmodig)

Men i Bolivias Amazonas-jungle, hvor forskere fulgte en gruppe af urbefolkningen i knap 20 år, fandt de kun to:

  • Arbejdsomhed
  • Prosocial adfærd (hvor vi hjælper, trøster eller samarbejder med andre)

»Jeg går ud fra, at de fem personlighedstræk er almindeligt gældende for alle mennesker til alle tider, selv om kultur kan påvirke indenfor naturgivne rammer. Vi mennesker er i bund og grund ens. Vi har anlæg for stort set de samme følelser og varierer på tværs af de samme personlighedstræk, fordi det vigtigeste i evolutionen er kontakten med andre mennesker.«

»Målingerne kan være påvirket af kultur. De fleste tager udgangspunkt i det engelske sprog. De er udviklet til brug i den vestlige verden, og det er begrænset, hvad de kan afsløre om resten af verden,« siger Leif Edward Ottesen Kennair.

»Der er selvsagt også individuelle og kulturelle variationer. Vi skal måle på flere niveauer for at fange den almenmenneskelige natur.«

 

Love, Health And Wisdom

Brian

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Health, Learning and development, Psychology

Counter-Intuitive Life Lessons

There is a balance in life. Your is a fantastic balanced system of cells working together doing functions to keep you alive. Everything has it´s balance. Our behavior has to be balanced too to find the right meaning of life and well being.

So don´t over do things. That is violence on lifes harmonized balanced system.

They measure themselves on seven key elements, where they give themselves a score from 1 (way out of balance) to 10 (Zen-like harmony) to see where they stand. I’m not sure I have ever met anyone who has scored a 10 on all seven elements, so a more reasonable goal might be to find balance with at least half of these parts of your life.

1. Physical health.

It’s easy to let things like exercise and diet go by the wayside once things get busy in the office. But that’s the only body you’re going to get and it needs to carry you until the end of the game. That’s why it’s critical to continue to keep your body strong and healthy enough to enable you to do the things that excite you-whether that’s traveling for business or visiting your grandkids. The key here is to be fit enough that you don’t have to say “no” to anything you want to do. Give yourself a score-be honest-and see what you think. Could you do more to improve that number as a way to begin leading the kind of balanced life you’re seeking?

2. Family.

How balanced do you feel with your family time? What’s your relationship like with your spouse? Your kids? How about your parents and extended family members? Family ties are the tightest relationships you should have in your life no matter how busy things get at work. If you give yourself a low score here, it’s worth hitting the pause button to make the investment in repairing these relationships. Family members are truly part of your support network and you’ll never miss them more when you’re at your lowest point.

3. Social.

 Do you have a robust network of friends or not? Do you have a group of folks like you hang out with regularly, maybe for a book club or to go play soccer? If not, it’s time to start building these kinds of relationships. Having people around you that you like and trust is one of the best indicators of living a long life. If you are sacrificing relationships like these because you’re working too hard, you’re clearly not in balance.

4. Financial.

What does your personal financial balance sheet look like? Are you on a path to accumulate enough wealth that you will be able to enjoy a comfortable retirement? Are your assets increasing over time-or have you neglected to make the time to tend your financial garden? The key to personal financial health is to feel in control and know that you have enough money to have options. If you’re working too much, and you don’t have the money you need, something is clearly missing in the equation.

5. Business.

Whether you are running your own business or climbing the corporate ladder, ask yourself how energized you are to go into work every day. Are you excited to be making a difference and making progress-or do you dread the monotony of your day-to-day drag? Or, if you own the business, how are things going: Are revenues and profits growing? Some of us who are high achievers might never give ourselves a 10 here no matter what. But it’s worth measuring how all that time you are investing in your work is paying off.

6. Civic.

 How much time are you able to invest in the things you care about in your community? That can mean anything from volunteering to serving on the PTA or coaching a sports team-anything that turns you on when you give of yourself. Think of it as your attitude of gratitude. If you haven’t made enough time to give back, you’re missing out on a real emotional payback, because you are rewarded by the act of giving. And the key here isn’t just signing checks-time and talent are the real gifts.

7. Spiritual.

The final aspect of living a balanced life is your spiritual side. This could be anything from taking a walk in the woods to making a trip to church on Sunday-whatever fills up your spiritual cup. This is how we renew ourselves when we’re down-and it’s something that can be easily neglected. If you score low here, make the time to rethink your connection to God, nature, or whatever. You’ll feel refreshed and ready to tackle the world.

 

Love, Health And Wisdom

Brian

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Learning and development, Mindset, Psychology

Before, Time And Timing

Time, time and time. Everything is about time and timing.

I am sure you have tried to wait just a moment before you react. You got the feeling to react immediately, but you put at stop on yourself, waited and that turned out to be a wise decision.

The same thing in sports. E.g. soccer. If you wait to play the obvious, hold the ball, new opportunities shows up.

Sometimes you have to react immidiately in critical situations, but often if you remain calm and wait for just a moment it really will benefit you and the people around you.

Feelings are good to have, but don´t be a prisoner of them. A good BEING is the harmonious balance between sense and sensibility.

To be Ernest…

 

Love, Health And Wisdom

Brian

RELATEREDE INDLÆG

Learning and development, Psychology

How Our Brains Tick

Understanding the psychology behind the way we tick might help us to tick even better.

Many studies and much research has been invested into the how and why behind our everyday actions and interactions. The results are revealing. If you are looking for a way to supercharge your personal development, understanding the psychology behind our actions is an essential first step.

Fortunately, knowing is half the battle. When you realize all the many ways in which our minds create perceptions, weigh decisions, and subconsciously operate, you can see the psychological advantages start to take shape. It’s like a backstage pass to the way we work, and being backstage, you have an even greater understanding of what it takes to succeed.

The following 6 psychology facts can be viewed as a hacker’s guide to self-improvement, based on the brain’s default settings. So, that’s exactly what this is – your backstage pass to how our brain functions and how we can best avoid common misconceptions.

The Pratfall Effect – Your likability will increase if you aren’t perfect.

Don’t worry about tripping and falling in front of your boyfriend; doing so will only make him like you more. Go ahead and admit your failures to your friends; your humanness will endear yourself to them.

These mistakes attract charm as a result of the Pratfall Effect: Those who never make mistakes are perceived as less likeable than those who commit the occasional faux pas. Messing up draws people closer to you, makes you more human. Perfection creates distance and an unattractive air of invincibility. Those of us with flaws win out every time.

This theory was tested by psychologist Elliot Aronson. In his test, he asked participants to listen to recordings of people answering a quiz. Select recordings included the sound of the person knocking over a cup of coffee. When participants were asked to rate the quizzers on likability, the coffee-spill group came out on top.

Key Takeaway

The Pratfall Effect serves as a good reminder that it is okay to be fallible. Occasional mistakes are not only acceptable, they may turn out to be beneficial. So long as the mistakes are not critical and making mistakes does not compound a reputation for being unliked, the occasional pratfall can come in very handy. Pratfall away.

The Pygmalion Effect – Greater expectations drive greater performance.

The crux of this psychological phenomenon is the concept of self-fulfilling prophecy: If you believe something is true of yourself, eventually it will be.

The first test of the Pygmalion Effect was performed by psychologist Robert Rosenthal and occurred in an elementary school classroom with first and second grade students. At the beginning of the year, all the students took an assessment test, and Rosenthal led the teachers to believe that certain students were capable of great academic achievement. Rosenthal chose these students at random, regardless of the actual results of the IQ tests.

At the end of the year, when the students were retested, the group of earmarked high achievers did indeed show improvement over their peers. Why was this? Later tests concluded that teachers subconsciously gave greater opportunities, attention, and feedback to the special group. Their expectations for this group were higher, and their expectations created the reality.

Rosenthal summarized his finding:

What one person expects of another

can come to serve as a self-fulfilling prophecy.

The effect was dubbed “Pygmalion,” named after the Ovid tale of a sculptor who falls in love with one of his statues.

Key Takeaway

The applications for the Pygmalion Effect can have benefits for both personal development and leadership. Individually, you can challenge yourself with more difficult goals and tasks in an effort to rise to meet the challenge. As a leader, when you expect great things of your team, you may see improved performance in return.

 

The Paradox of Choice – The more choices we have, the less likely we are to be content with our decision.

Have you felt buyer’s remorse? If so, you’ve seen the Paradox of Choice in effect.

Even if our ultimate decision is clearly correct, when faced with many choices, we are less likely to be happy with what we choose. No doubt this is familiar to you. When I eat out, I often second-guess my menu choice. When you buy a new car, you might toss and turn over the decision. A wealth of choices makes finding contentment that much harder.

To prove this paradox, psychologists Mark Lepper and Sheena Iyengar conducted an experiment on supermarket jam. At a gourmet food store, Lepper and Iyengar set up a display of high-quality jams and taste samples. In one test, they offered six varieties; another test, they offered 24. The results of the study showed that 30 percent of people exposed to the smaller selection ended up purchasing a jar of jam. Only 3 percent of the people exposed to the larger selection purchased jam.

The fame of the jam study coupled with a popular book and TED talk by psychologist Barry Schwartz make the paradox of choice one of the most publicized (and criticized) psychological phenomenons. Perhaps the best affirmations of this tyranny of choice are its common sense explanations: Happiness is diminished with the extra effort and stress it takes to weigh multiple options, opportunity cost affects the way we value items, pressure to choose can be draining, and the possibility of blame exists should the decision not turn out how we had hoped.

Key takeaway

A simple solution to the paradox of choice: Give yourself fewer options. A key to this is identified in the following excerpt from Schwartz’s book:

Focus on what makes you happy, and do what gives meaning to your life

The Bystander Effect – The more people who see someone in need, the less likely that person is to receive help.

The parable of the Good Samaritan illustrates this effect clearly. So too do many tragic eventsthroughout history. Researchers call it a “confusion of responsibility,” where individuals feel less responsibility for the outcome of an event when others are around. In fact, the probability of help is inversely related to the number of people present. If you are to ever need assistance, don’t go looking for it in a crowd.

The Bystander Effect was shown in a study by social psychologists Bibb Latane and John Darley. They watched students respond to the perceived choking of a fellow student in a nearby cubicle. When the test subjects felt they were the only other person there, 85 percent rushed to help. When the student felt there was one other person, 65 percent helped. When the student felt there were four other people, the percentage dropped to 31 percent.

You may have experienced the Bystander Effect in a group project at school. There is often one group member who puts off deadlines and assignments because of diffused responsibility: They assume someone else will pick up the slack.

Key takeaway

Be specific when you need help. Ask someone for help by name so as to remove the confusion of responsibility. This is especially counterintuitive since we naturally assume saying to a larger group to help us will encourage more people to jump in, when really the opposite is the case. To avoid frustration, pick out 1 person only every time.

 

The Spotlight Effect – Your mistakes are not noticed as much as you think

The perception of our being under constant scrutiny is merely in our minds, and the paranoia and self-doubt that we feel each time we make a mistake does not truly reflect reality. According to the Spotlight Effect, people aren’t paying attention at our moments of failure nearly as much as we think.

To test the Spotlight Effect, a team of psychologists at Cornell asked a group of test subjects to wear an embarrassing T-shirt (featuring a picture of Barry Manilow’s face) and estimate how many other people had noticed what they were wearing. The estimations of the test subjects were twice as high as the actual number.

Key takeaway

You are under the spotlight less often than you think. Acknowledging this should lead to increased comfortability and relaxation in public settings and more freedom to be yourself. More so, when you do make a mistake, you can rest easy knowing that its impact is far less than you think. Psychologist Kenneth Savitsky puts it this way:

You can’t completely eliminate the embarrassment you feel when you commit a faux pas, but it helps to know how much you’re exaggerating its impact.

 

The Focusing Effect – People place too much importance on one aspect of an event and fail to recognize other factors

“Nothing In Life Is As Important As You Think It Is, While You Are Thinking About It” – Daniel Kahneman

How great is the difference in mood between someone who earns high income and someone who earns lower income? The difference does exist, but it is one-third less significant than most people expect. This illustrates the Focusing Effect; in the income example, the factor of income as it relates to mood overshadows the myriad other circumstances at play.

How much happier is a Californian than a Midwesterner? When psychologists posed this question to residents of both areas, the answer from each group was that Californians must be considerably happier. The truth was that there was no difference between the actual happiness rating of Californians and Midwesterners. Respondents were focusing on the sunny weather in California and the easy-going lifestyle as the predominant factors in happiness when in fact there are many other, less publicized aspects of happiness that Midwesterners enjoy: low crime, safety from earthquakes, etc.

Marketers use Focusing Effect (also called focusing illusion) on consumers by convincing them of the necessary features of a product or service. Politicians, too, use focusing to exaggerate the importance of particular issues.

Key takeaway

To combat this effect, it is important to remember to keep perspective, look at problems from many angles, and weigh several factors before making a decision. The downfall of the Focusing Effect is that it can lead to mistakes in predicting future outcomes. If you can avoid tunnel vision (or at least acknowledge that it may exist), you can improve your chances of making a sound choice.

Over to you now. Have you ever experienced some of these psychological effects before? If so, how did you deal with overcoming them? I’d love to hear your thoughts on the topic and see what the best ways are to combat them.

6 Powerful Psychological Effects That Explain How Our Brains Tick

 

Love, Health And Wisdom

Brian

 

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